Source code for requests_cache.backends.sqlite

.. image::

`SQLite <>`_ is a fast and lightweight SQL database engine that stores data
either in memory or in a single file on disk.

Despite its simplicity, SQLite is a powerful tool. For example, it's the primary storage system for
a number of common applications including Dropbox, Firefox, and Chrome. It's well suited for
caching, and requires no extra configuration or dependencies, which is why it's the default backend
for requests-cache.

Cache Files
* See :ref:`files` for general info on specifying cache paths
* If you specify a name without an extension, the default extension ``.sqlite`` will be used

In-Memory Caching
SQLite also supports `in-memory databases <>`_.
You can enable this (in "shared" memory mode) with the ``use_memory`` option:

    >>> session = CachedSession('http_cache', use_memory=True)

Or specify a memory URI with additional options:

    >>> session = CachedSession(':file:memdb1?mode=memory')

Or just ``:memory:``, if you are only using the cache from a single thread:

    >>> session = CachedSession(':memory:')

When working with average-sized HTTP responses (< 1MB) and using a modern SSD for file storage, you
can expect speeds of around:

* Write: 2-8ms
* Read: 0.2-0.6ms

Of course, this will vary based on hardware specs, response size, and other factors.

SQLite supports concurrent access, so it is safe to use from a multi-threaded and/or multi-process
application. It supports unlimited concurrent reads. Writes, however, are queued and run in serial,
so if you need to make large volumes of concurrent requests, you may want to consider a different
backend that's specifically made for that kind of workload, like :py:class:`.RedisCache`.

Connection Options
The SQLite backend accepts any keyword arguments for :py:func:`sqlite3.connect`. These can be passed
via :py:class:`.CachedSession`:

    >>> session = CachedSession('http_cache', timeout=30)

Or via :py:class:`.SQLiteCache`:

    >>> backend = SQLiteCache('http_cache', timeout=30)
    >>> session = CachedSession(backend=backend)

API Reference
.. automodsumm:: requests_cache.backends.sqlite
import sqlite3
import threading
from contextlib import contextmanager
from logging import getLogger
from os import unlink
from os.path import isfile
from pathlib import Path
from tempfile import gettempdir
from typing import Collection, Iterable, Iterator, List, Tuple, Type, Union

from appdirs import user_cache_dir

from .._utils import chunkify, get_valid_kwargs
from . import BaseCache, BaseStorage

MEMORY_URI = 'file::memory:?cache=shared'
AnyPath = Union[Path, str]
logger = getLogger(__name__)

[docs]class SQLiteCache(BaseCache): """SQLite cache backend. Args: db_path: Database file path use_cache_dir: Store datebase in a user cache directory (e.g., `~/.cache/http_cache.sqlite`) use_temp: Store database in a temp directory (e.g., ``/tmp/http_cache.sqlite``) use_memory: Store database in memory instead of in a file fast_save: Significantly increases cache write performance, but with the possibility of data loss. See `pragma: synchronous <>`_ for details. kwargs: Additional keyword arguments for :py:func:`sqlite3.connect` """ def __init__(self, db_path: AnyPath = 'http_cache', **kwargs): super().__init__(**kwargs) self.responses: SQLiteDict = SQLitePickleDict(db_path, table_name='responses', **kwargs) self.redirects = SQLiteDict(db_path, table_name='redirects', **kwargs) @property def db_path(self) -> AnyPath: return self.responses.db_path
[docs] def bulk_delete(self, keys): """Remove multiple responses and their associated redirects from the cache, with additional cleanup""" self.responses.bulk_delete(keys=keys) self.responses.vacuum() self.redirects.bulk_delete(keys=keys) self.redirects.bulk_delete(values=keys) self.redirects.vacuum()
[docs] def clear(self): """Clear the cache. If this fails due to a corrupted cache or other I/O error, this will attempt to delete the cache file and re-initialize. """ try: super().clear() except Exception: logger.exception('Failed to clear cache') if isfile(self.responses.db_path): unlink(self.responses.db_path) self.responses.init_db() self.redirects.init_db()
[docs]class SQLiteDict(BaseStorage): """A dictionary-like interface for SQLite""" def __init__( self, db_path, table_name='http_cache', fast_save=False, use_cache_dir: bool = False, use_memory: bool = False, use_temp: bool = False, **kwargs, ): super().__init__(**kwargs) self._can_commit = True self._local_context = threading.local() self._lock = threading.RLock() self.connection_kwargs = get_valid_kwargs(sqlite_template, kwargs) self.db_path = _get_sqlite_cache_path(db_path, use_cache_dir, use_temp, use_memory) self.fast_save = fast_save self.table_name = table_name self.init_db()
[docs] def init_db(self): """Initialize the database, if it hasn't already been""" self.close() with self._lock, self.connection() as con: con.execute(f'CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS {self.table_name} (key PRIMARY KEY, value)')
[docs] @contextmanager def connection(self, commit=False) -> Iterator[sqlite3.Connection]: """Get a thread-local database connection""" if not getattr(self._local_context, 'con', None): logger.debug(f'Opening connection to {self.db_path}:{self.table_name}') self._local_context.con = sqlite3.connect(self.db_path, **self.connection_kwargs) if self.fast_save: self._local_context.con.execute('PRAGMA synchronous = 0;') yield self._local_context.con if commit and self._can_commit: self._local_context.con.commit()
[docs] def close(self): """Close any active connections""" if getattr(self._local_context, 'con', None): self._local_context.con.close() self._local_context.con = None
[docs] @contextmanager def bulk_commit(self): """Context manager used to speed up insertion of a large number of records Example: >>> d1 = SQLiteDict('test') >>> with d1.bulk_commit(): ... for i in range(1000): ... d1[i] = i * 2 """ self._can_commit = False try: yield if hasattr(self._local_context, 'con'): self._local_context.con.commit() finally: self._can_commit = True
def __del__(self): self.close() def __delitem__(self, key): with self.connection(commit=True) as con: cur = con.execute(f'DELETE FROM {self.table_name} WHERE key=?', (key,)) if not cur.rowcount: raise KeyError def __getitem__(self, key): with self.connection() as con: row = con.execute(f'SELECT value FROM {self.table_name} WHERE key=?', (key,)).fetchone() # raise error after the with block, otherwise the connection will be locked if not row: raise KeyError return row[0] def __setitem__(self, key, value): with self.connection(commit=True) as con: con.execute( f'INSERT OR REPLACE INTO {self.table_name} (key,value) VALUES (?,?)', (key, value), ) def __iter__(self): with self.connection() as con: for row in con.execute(f'SELECT key FROM {self.table_name}'): yield row[0] def __len__(self): with self.connection() as con: return con.execute(f'SELECT COUNT(key) FROM {self.table_name}').fetchone()[0]
[docs] def bulk_delete(self, keys=None, values=None): """Delete multiple keys from the cache, without raising errors for any missing keys. Also supports deleting by value. """ if not keys and not values: return column = 'key' if keys else 'value' with self.connection(commit=True) as con: # Split into small enough chunks for SQLite to handle for chunk in chunkify(keys or values, max_size=SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER): marks, args = _format_sequence(chunk) statement = f'DELETE FROM {self.table_name} WHERE {column} IN ({marks})' con.execute(statement, args)
[docs] def clear(self): with self.connection(commit=True) as con: con.execute(f'DROP TABLE IF EXISTS {self.table_name}') self.init_db() self.vacuum()
[docs] def vacuum(self): with self.connection(commit=True) as con: con.execute('VACUUM')
[docs]class SQLitePickleDict(SQLiteDict): """Same as :class:`SQLiteDict`, but serializes values before saving""" def __setitem__(self, key, value): serialized_value = self.serializer.dumps(value) if isinstance(serialized_value, bytes): serialized_value = sqlite3.Binary(serialized_value) super().__setitem__(key, serialized_value) def __getitem__(self, key): return self.serializer.loads(super().__getitem__(key))
def _format_sequence(values: Collection) -> Tuple[str, List]: """Get SQL parameter marks for a sequence-based query, and ensure value is a sequence""" if not isinstance(values, Iterable): values = [values] return ','.join(['?'] * len(values)), list(values) def _get_sqlite_cache_path( db_path: AnyPath, use_cache_dir: bool, use_temp: bool, use_memory: bool = False ) -> AnyPath: """Get a resolved path for a SQLite database file (or memory URI(""" # Use an in-memory database, if specified db_path = str(db_path) if use_memory: return MEMORY_URI elif ':memory:' in db_path or 'mode=memory' in db_path: return db_path # Add file extension if not specified if not Path(db_path).suffix: db_path += '.sqlite' return get_cache_path(db_path, use_cache_dir, use_temp)
[docs]def get_cache_path(db_path: AnyPath, use_cache_dir: bool = False, use_temp: bool = False) -> Path: """Get a resolved cache path""" db_path = Path(db_path) # Save to platform-specific temp or user cache directory, if specified if use_cache_dir and not db_path.is_absolute(): db_path = Path(user_cache_dir()) / db_path elif use_temp and not db_path.is_absolute(): db_path = Path(gettempdir()) / db_path # Expand relative and user paths (~), make parent dir(s), and better error if parent is a file db_path = db_path.absolute().expanduser() try: db_path.parent.mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True) except FileExistsError: raise FileExistsError( f'Parent path exists and is not a directory: {db_path.parent}.' 'Please either delete the file or choose a different path.' ) return db_path
[docs]def sqlite_template( timeout: float = 5.0, detect_types: int = 0, isolation_level: str = None, check_same_thread: bool = True, factory: Type = None, cached_statements: int = 100, uri: bool = False, ): """Template function to get an accurate signature for the builtin :py:func:`sqlite3.connect`"""
# Aliases for backwards-compatibility DbCache = SQLiteCache DbDict = SQLiteDict DbPickeDict = SQLitePickleDict